All about Dandruff

When you think about dandruff, what is the first thing that comes to mind? Flakes. Itchy. Gross. Dirty. What else?



Did you know that 1 in 5 of us have dandruff all the time and at least 50% of us have had dandruff before? When those dreaded white flakes make their appearance, our self-esteem looks like it's flaking away too. Managing dandruff is easy if we know the root causes and some basic facts.
Before we get into the different types of dandruff we have, let’s start with the causes.

Are you aware of your body cellular turnover or skin cells renewal rate?



If you got burnt or a wound, your skin will renew itself and after a few weeks, you have new skin replacing the old. A the skin renewal rate of a normal human being is 28 days. As the skin layers continually replace themselves, cells are pushed outward where they die and flake off. For most individuals, these flakes of skin are too small to be visible. However, certain conditions cause cell turnover to be unusually rapid, especially in the scalp.


It is hypothesized that for people with dandruff, skin cells may mature and shed in 1–5 days, as opposed to around a month (28 days) in people without dandruff. The result is that dead skin cells are shed in large, oily clumps, which appear as white or greyish flakes on the scalp, skin and clothes.


We are shedding skin and scalp cells all the time. Infect, we shed 30,000 skin cells per minute! The only reason why you are not seeing flakes all around you is because it is microscopic. However, when our body is triggered and goes into overdrive, your skin cells start producing more than you can shed.


Hence, dandruff is really your skin cells magnified into a visible skin flake which you can see.



What is the trigger for this, what made my skin cells produce so rapidly fast?


One of the main culprits is Malassezia (mea – la – sir – zai – ya). It is a yeast, a fungi found on the skin of 7 billion humans and associated with a variety of conditions, including dandruff, atopic eczema, dermatitis and many more. Humans who are born with Malassezia, you will be susceptible to dandruff.



For most of us, this type of fungus is a harmless part of your scalp and it feeds on the sebum on your skin. However, given the right conditions, fungus can over grow and cause an inflammatory response that leads to a build-up of skin cells that then flake off like dandruff.


A common factor is seborrhoeic dermatitis. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a common, benign skin problem which can affect infants to adults. It often appears as a red, swollen, greasy rash that may have white or yellow flakes or crust. Seborrhoeic dermatitis can also affect areas such as the face, ears, groin, chest and back.



Together with the proliferation of Malessezia (mea – la – sir – zai – ya), it is a lethal combination of severe irritation and dandruff which never seems to end. Both of them feed off each other.
Malessezia needs fat to proliferate and Seborrhoeric dermatitis love fungi.


The best way to treat your dandruff—whatever the cause—is to first know what you’re really dealing with.


Do you know you can suffer from 3 types of Dandruff – Dry, Oily & Severe? How do you recognise which one you have and what is the best treatment for it? Many people chose the treatment based on smell, but this method is not accurate.


For Dry Dandruff, this is how it looks like under the microscope.



What you see is many tiny small dots that fall off easily, so much so it looks like snow on your shoulders. This condition is linked to dry scalp. To treat dry dandruff, you need the right product which has the right balance of moisture with anti-bacteria purification and exfoliation.

Phytosquam Anti-Dandruff Moisturising Shampoo does just that! It balances your scalp and remove loose dandruff flakes while providing optimal hydration and beautiful shine to hair. This is a gentle, scalp-exfoliating shampoo that you can use daily.


For Oily Dandruff, this is how it looks like under the microscope.



Some people have a bad habit of peeling off these big flakes. Please refrain from doing that as the flakes will just grow back again and this time, even faster. In the midst of peeling these flakes, you may infect your scalp or even pull out your hair.


Instead, please use Phytosquam Purifying Anti-Dandruff Shampoo. This antiseptic shampoo has the natural powers of lemon oil, pine bark, geranium, rosemary and sage to purify and regulate the scalp. Recommended for those prone to an oily scalp, it prevents the spread of excess sebum while providing ultra-oil absorbing benefits. deep cleaning and anti-fungal benefits. Hair is cleaner, fresher & fuller!


Finally, we have the worst dandruff of all – the Severe Dandruff. This is an extension of the Oily Dandruff, but worse. This is an extreme case of seborrhoeic dermatitis and you have big flaky dandruff over 50% to 100% of your scalp. Remember! As much as you are tempted, do not remove the flakes by your fingers. Harsh or improper removal of scales can be painful and cause bleeding and open to infection.



You are in immense discomfort and always itching and flaking. You feel and look terrible and everyone thinks you have not showered for weeks. Please do not fret!

Use Phytosquam Intense Anti Dandruff Treatment Shampoo to save yourself! Formulated with an innovative botanical complex [Black pepper + Guyana wood], this shampoo purifies and exfoliates the scalp, and provides anti-fungal, anti-bacterial benefits. It also eliminates and prevents the recurrence of dandruff and relieves irritation and itchiness.


These are some of the other triggers for dandruff:
  • Stress
  • Insufficient Rest & Sleep
  • Hormonal Changes
  • Sensitivity to harsh hair care products (contact dermatitis)
  • Insufficient Washing
  • Certain Illness increase the risk of dandruff

When these happens, you know you do not have to worry as you are prepared to win the battle with Phytosquam range!


What else can help you control and avoid dandruff? Find out more here.


Watch the full episode of PHYTO Hair Talk here.